Thursday, March 30, 2017

Radio Broadcasting and the Global Impact

No longer are today’s business limited by geographical boundaries. With the use of modern communication devices, the business world is expanding its boarders internationally.  With the coming of globalization, international business are becoming increasingly popular while global companies are among st the most profitable in the world. In order to be successful an organization must be aware of the language and culture of the country where it plans to conduct business with its investments. Policies and laws of the nation can either make global business easy or hard. With the success of global business, its future is gleaming, on a large scale.  While global businesses continue to expand into markets outside the United State, business are restricted not only of laws within the United States, but international laws where the company plan to conduct business in.  Laws are not the only things that limit the change for a business to grow globally.  Organization must come to realize the affects and the dangers associated with expanding outside national boards.  There are many factors which affect the risk that a company takes when expanding into a foreign market; exchange rates, government policies, or political stability. All have a major effect on the investment companies usually make in a foreign country.
What do these changes mean for a U.S.-based company like University Radio?  From a business standpoint, University Radio will face increased competition. However, they will also have increased opportunities to take advantage of new and expanding markets.  As the emerging countries continue to grow, they aren’t just producing more, but they are also consuming more.  Organization considering these new opportunities to grow need to be prepared for the trials of doing business in these emerging markets. While not all emerging markets are alike, U.S. companies may find that many have numerous restrictions on currency transactions, complicated bureaucracies and less sophisticated banking systems. However, these challenges should not deter University Radio from expanding their business. As long as an organization is prepared to enter an emerging market they can provide profitable growth.

While the government is certainly a friend of business, providing financial, advisory and other forms of service to the corporate community. At the same time as, the government is also a friend of the public and the American consumer, and acts in what it perceives as their best interests with protective laws, rules and regulations. While companies may oppose some aspects of restrictive laws, taxes and regulations, they may also endorse other such requirements if they help their own specific business goals.   Public radio continues to be an energetic and significant part of many lives around the world. Public radio is meeting the challenges of a growing media landscape by taking full advantage of technological innovations including podcasting, Internet streaming, and other forms of communication.   But with continued growth and technology, new laws are passed to protect the rights to the creator of the music.  In 1998 the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DCMA) was passed by politicians.  While this law tries to protect artist, this law limits many features of Internet movement. It was created, to protect the copyrighted material of artists, scientists, writers, etc., as technology continues to change. Part of the DMCA law established that the recording industry would have a right to collect fees for their performers based on Internet "airplay."  It took a while for that to occur, but in 2003 - amongst much debate and confusion - a set of rules and fees was established for internet broadcasters to follow. In order to track what songs are played, broadcasters must provide thorough reports on every song played by every listener.  National Public Radio (NPR), the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and other organization have worked hard to help public radio stations with legal support and assistance to complicated tasks.  Another part of the law states that listeners should not be able to call up any particular song on demand, so therefore, there should be no way to "scroll" forward or backward through the streaming shows that contain recorded music. As this conflict still continues and may actually never be resolved due to more high level technological breakthroughs continue, the dual nature of government's relation to business may become increasing more regulatory and collaborative at the same time.

The political risk in international business entails discontinuities occurring in the business environment that are: difficult to anticipate; and that result from political action(s) or changes(s) that possess the potential to significantly affect profit or business goals. (Kluyver).
While many in the business world have long criticized the government about regulations and obstructive nature. Often cited as an impairment to corporate and small business profits, and a waste of precious time and effort, government regulation requirements have been criticized, side-stepped and violated by many a business since the early twentieth century when the corporate income tax and anti-trust laws were first enacted.
Since the enactment of anti-trust laws in the early twentieth century, followed by periodic increases in corporate tax rates and increasingly complex and restrictive regulatory laws governing the conduct of business, the American business community has generally been an opponent of any government law, regulation, compliance obligation or tax levy that it perceives to undermine profitability or impede business operations.

For decades, media economists have tried to work within the three categories found in the mass media: monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition (Albarran, 2002).  Yet other types of structures are evolving. Duopoly, a market with two primary firms, is becoming more common in media markets. U.S. examples at the beginning of the century included the market for new national digital satellite radio services, XM Radio and Sirius (Albarran & Pitts, 2001), and the market for Internet browsers, involving Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape.

With spread of new forms of communication globally, the growth of e of e-commerce within the United States, cyber economic crime has increased. Multiple studies still show that fraud, security, and privacy continue to be the primary detriment to the growth of e-commerce. Most economic crimes have a cyber-version today. These cyber- crimes offer more opportunities to the criminals, with larger payoffs and fewer risks. Websites can be spoofed and hijacked. Payment systems can be compromised and electronic fund transfers to steal funds or launder money occur at quick speeds. Serious cyber-crimes and victimization of the public have caused consumer confidence to waiver. While online advertising business has exploded in recent years and its newer model is opening up many opportunities for ill-intentioned actors. It is perhaps the only medium that allows for such granular targeting of your audience while also reaching out to millions of people at any given time, making it very attractive for cybercriminals. (Segura)
While no form of mass media has undergone as much change and evolution as radio, which continues to reinvent itself today. From its earliest forms of communication, radio in some form has provided programming to attract listeners and has influence us in our daily lives.  Political, economic, and cultural globalization is changing the way radio corporations compete: there is more competition than ever before; in some cases, entertainment products and services cover the globe; and the major companies’ capital is now worldwide. The first of these effects—more competitors in each market—is the result of a gradually shrinking world. The breaking down of global obstacles, the potential of new technologies, and the existence of a collective appearance shared by a great range of countries means that far-off and unfamiliar markets offer the right conditions for introduction and gaining new broadcasting. This fact is also directly linked to the growth of giant media groups; a global market has replaced their home countries as their natural setting. When companies become successful, their business decisions all have one factor in common: attempt to increase the organization exposure into the global market to attract more listeners and gain more revenue.  While globalization, contains many problems and provides great opportunities for organizations to expand globally and for each citizens, politicians should meet this new sensation in a spirit of modernization and ingenuity, finding ways for organization to grow and develop in coherence with the public interest.


Kluyver, de. “Global Trade.” The Political Imperative in International Business.
21 June 2001.

Albarran, A. B. (2002). Media economics: Understanding markets, industries and concepts
(2nd ed.). Ames: Iowa State UniversityPres

Albarran, A. B., & Pitts, G. G. (2001). The radio broadcasting industry. Needham Heights,
MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Segura, J (2014) MBPT Spotlight: Cybercriminals + Ad Networks = Dangerous Mix Called ‘Malvertising’ On The Loose

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