Monday, October 14, 2019

Departmental Policies


The area that I want to focus on would be the marketing department. The marketing department serves as a great purpose for a business. It’s extremely important that we not only have great marketing strategies as far as how we will market our product, but also that we take into deep consideration which area we are wanting to target. We have to make sure that we are offering a product that meets their economic needs.
There are many different steps that are necessary for developing policies and procedures which are as the following: establish a need for a policy, develop the policy content, draft the policy, write the procedure, review the policy by key parties, approve the policy, implement the policy, policy review and update and communication of changes to the policy. (Counsil, 2018)
There are many different areas where policies can be put in place but five that I would like to focus on more in depth. The first one I would like to discuss is the attendance policy. The company needs to set an attendance policy that is achievable by each individual and make sure that its enforced at all times. There are moments when an employee may have a sick child, family emergency or something else where its impossible to come to work. If that’s the case, we must make sure that they have the proper documents or doctor notes to account for that absence. When an employee misses work it gets everyone else behind in their task that they need to accomplish which will cause problems down the line for the whole company. We must make sure that we have a policy set up that the employees understand and make sure that they know its highly crucial they follow this attendance policy.
Overtime is another policy that we would like to discuss as far as a policy set in place. Overtime isn’t something that we will want to continuously offer but in certain cases if we are on a time limit to complete a job or finish a product then we want our employees on board with working additional hours if needed.
I would also like to discuss privacy, with any company this is very important. Privacy of our employees and customers is a huge topic. We need to make sure that we do what is necessary to keep our employees and customers information completely confidential. We can’t allow people to come in to work and drop the ball exposing other peoples’ personal information. It’s extremely important that we focus on their privacy always.
The next topic I would like to focus on will be the accident reporting. I would like to enforce a policy that protects the employees and employers’ rights. There is always a chance of an accident on the job, with we must make sure that we come up with a plan of how we will react in that situation. If there is an accident that takes place, we must make sure that its reported immediately. If it’s a situation where the employee is injured, we must make sure to file proper workman’s comp sheets as well as report the status of the employee before and after the incident. If the employee doesn’t disclose this information when the incident occurs, then we can’t go back days later and handle the situation appropriately.
Finally, I would like to discuss the topic of alcohol and drug use. This is a zero-tolerance company which means that no alcohol or drug usage is acceptable while on the job. Alcohol or drug use on the job could lead to many dangerous situations for the employee/employer, so we must make sure that we have a policy in place and that the employees know that we do not allow any usage while on the job. We will conduct random drug and alcohol screenings when we feel it is necessary and upon failing one of these tests the employee will be terminated. There are no second chances within our policy and procedures manual for alcohol and drug use, because the danger of accidents or doing the job wrong is too high.
         In closing I would like to focus on the fact that policies and procedures are necessary within any organization no matter what it is. If a company doesn’t have policies and procedures set up, then it leads to a lot of blank space for mistakes to be made and incidents to take place. Too often companies don’t focus on policies to the extent they should which will lead to a disaster for the company when an incident takes place. Having a manual set up from the get-go will show the employees what is expected of them and what must be done. There are so many different policies that can be set up within a company and all depends on what the company is looking for and trying to achieve within their company.
References:
Counsil, H. (2018). Developing HR Policies. Retrieved from HR Counsil: http://hrcouncil.ca/hr-toolkit/policies-guideline.cfm

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Fun House Business


In opening our funhouse there are so many different aspects that we must look at to make sure that our business is successful and one that we can keep up and running for many years.
When we first open we will be operating with only a few employees, one to run the counter for people who are coming in and make sure they are there to give out wrist bands and make sure the safety forms filled out. We will also have someone running the concessions as well as someone who will be doing the face painting and we would like to have someone keeping an eye on the children while they are playing. We will also need to make sure that we have someone who can run the company as far as human resources go and can handle all the financial aspects of the company. In starting the business, I will be doing that myself but upon growth we would like to hire someone who is trained and or licensed in that area. If we have multiple locations it would be necessary to have someone at each location who can handle the bookwork that needs to be done regarding all the finances.            
Within time of operating our business we hope to see a lot of growth and hope to eventually expand to other locations. That’s a goal that we have set in place and hope to accomplish it within a year or two. In expanding to more than one location we would need to make sure that we are staffed enough to have all the areas mentioned above covered. We would have to ensure that all locations have the proper employees needed to ensure safety first and that the kids are having an amazing experience while they are there playing.
            While it will take time and money to expand to other areas that is our long-term goal, so we will continuously be looking for people who we know will be reliable, trust worthy, and people who have a passion for making kids smile.  Also, when it comes to growth it will lead to other activities and offering special events that the funhouse can be reserved for, so we want to make sure that we have the personnel to cover all those aspects when they take place.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Capsim Core Company Strategy


A vision statement that I would like to make for the company would just be to maintain a company that has goals and strives to do everything in our power to reach those goals. The mission statement would be to strive to have the best morals and practice integrity in everything that we do. In practicing integrity and honesty within our company we can make sure that we reach customers who know our product and that we will stand by it. Capsim Core is beneficial because it shows us every detail of the company, financially and sales wise. It will show us what is thriving and the areas that we need to work on. We always want to make sure that when we market a product that we are open and honest about the product. If there are problems with this product or they aren’t reaching certain standards we want to be able to disclose this information with public and be open and upfront about it. We will also let them know what our company is doing every day to strive for better and make sure that the goals we have in mind are met.
The area that I would like to discuss would be the marketing aspect of the simulation. Marketing is very important for many different reasons and it’s not just about the advertising but also is highly affected by the area that you are trying to supply the product too. If it’s an area that doesn’t use that certain product then you would want to make sure that you target the proper audience. This would often mean doing a lot of research on other companies offering similar products and their success rates. We can look at these different areas and determine what we need to do differently to make sure that we have a product that will be successful and reach many different locations and markets.
I would like to see the company show a better percentage when it comes to pricing, we can look at the competitive pricing from other companies and make sure that we are offering something with better value and pricing. Also, it would be very important to look at the reliability of the product and make sure that the product does exactly what it says it will do and that it will hold up for a good period. Customers want to know the product they are investing in, is going to be a worthwhile purchase. We will also look at the market size of the area we are going to be trying to target, we need to make sure that we are putting in efforts and marketing in an area that will be successful.
I hope that in giving this information it will help in making decisions for the company that will be a positive influence and have long term success rates.

Friday, October 11, 2019

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Thursday, October 10, 2019

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Wednesday, October 9, 2019

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Tuesday, October 8, 2019

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Friday, October 4, 2019

Strategic Analysis Tools


            There are several different strategic analysis tools that can be used by managers and leaders to evaluate their business.  One of these tools is PEST or Political, Economic, Social, and Technology.  Political factors include tax policy, labor laws, environmental laws, trade restrictions, tariffs, and political stability. Economic factors include economic growth, interest rates, exchange rates, and inflation rates.  Social factors include aspects such as cultural differences, population growth rate and age distribution.  Technology factors include research and development activity, automation, technology incentives, and the rate of technology change.  According to Lannon (2006) “this is a great tool to use in tandem with SWOT”. 
             Another tool used in strategic analysis is SOAR or Strengths, Opportunities, Aspirations, and Results.  This tool differs from the commonly used SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) because it engages all levels and functional areas of an organization, while SWOT typically breaks down the  system to gain insight.   SOAR focuses on the organization and enhancing what is currently done well, rather than concentrating on perceived threats and / or weaknesses.   
One of the pro’s to using PEST analysis is to identify key factors, constraints, or forces that influence a firm's competitive position.  It is used during the planning and control process.  Another pro to using this tool is to help establish the dominant drivers of change helps managers make better decisions.
            One of the con’s to using the PEST analysis is the fact that the environmental analysis is complex.  Historical behavior does not guarantee future behavior. Determining the relevant trends remains a subjective decision.  Another con to the PEST analysis is that assessing and tracking interdependencies between trends is difficult and prone to errors.  Behavior can be modeled through simulation; however, it would increase the cost of analysis.
            One of the pro’s for using SOAR is that it engages managers from every level of the organization to communicate and share input on strategy and strategic planning.  Another pro to using SOAR is that most of the company’s resources are spent on building the organization’s strengths instead of spending time correcting their weaknesses. 
            A con for using SOAR analysis is that managers may ignore weaknesses and threats.  They may believe that their solution will overcome any difficulties.  This may not be the case.  By ignoring their weaknesses and threats, it will be difficult for a company to show improvement overall.


References

Lannon, R. (May 10, 2016).  Strategy Spotlight: 8 Tools & Techniques to Apply to Strategic Analysis & Planning.  Retrieved from https://www.batimes.com/.../8-tools-and-techniques-to-apply-to-strategic-analysis-and-planning.html
Vargas, K. (August 25, 2017).  SOAR: An Appreciative Inquiry Approach for Strategic Planning.  Retrieved from https://news.nnlm.gov/.../soar-an-appreciative-inquiry-approach-for-strategic-planning/

Thursday, October 3, 2019

E-Mail Management in Digital Marketing


                        A database of 10,000 subscribers! I thought I was in luck, how easy can this be.  Then I sent out my first test ad to the masses. I was shocked to discover I had a 50% bounce rate within my list! That meant I was sending out to 10,000 people and only 5,000 of the intended subscribers were legitimate e-mail addresses. This was not going to be as easy as I imagined. I had a lot of work in front of me in order to clean up my database and reduce the 50% bounce rate to as close to zero as possible.
            Cleaning a database is not as challenging as it seems but it definitely can take some time. There are a few common reasons that can contribute to an excessive bounce rate.  The email addresses provided simply just do not exist, they may have common misspellings or any other possible anomaly. Segregate the known outliers within your subscribers. Look at your bounce list, fix the obvious and then dig a bit deeper. If you see that the email is just erroneous and does not have an valid customer associated with it then just discard it.  If you run across one that may be a bit out of whack but the subscriber left a point of contact number to be reached at then give that customer a call. Confirm their email is correct, thank them and continue to drive on.  To have a solid database of actual customers that want to read your line of advertising is much better than having 10,000 erroneous emails that go out to the world of digits and lost in the ones and zeros.
            Not challenging but time consuming. Especially if you list is huge.  Cleaning can be tiresome but very useful and effective.  One your list is accurate and valid send another test ad out and enjoy the results. Polish up the list a bit then it will be time for data segmentauion. What is that you ask? It is known as the act of dividing your subscriber database into various categories, not so unlike a Venn diagram, in order to separate amongst your subscribers their various likes and dislikes.  It may include categories such as their various attributes, requirements, likes, dislikes, hobbies and so on.  This can be utilized to better target your audience and ensure the ads sent to each of them are hitting an area of interest.
            A marketing campaign utilizing email to your customer does not need to be over thought. I look at it as a style in which I can communicate my wares to my selected audience in a way that will draw them to my site.  My intent is to obtain their attention with an offer or a carrot so to speak and snare them into looking through my website with the intent to purchase my products. For example, a marketing plan that works well on me is a frequent email I receive from Polo Ralph Lauren about every three days.  I cannot help but to click each one and open it.  What does it contain?  A simple coupon that runs until the next email is received. Especially during the holdays the discounts range from 35%-60% off total purchase.  How can you go wrong?  A simple ad that continues to draw customers to the store, website or desired market is the way to go.  Over complicating the process will lose the customers focus and your email will be quickly deleted and quite probably within a short timeframe placed within the dreaded SPAM folder.
            Utilizing a simplistic approach through coupons and quick attractive ads we can see who’s interest we have gained.  For those who chose to delete or simply not open our email I would challenge just that demographic with an extra special sale. The purpose of this is to hook them into wanting more! Once they see the deal they cannot pass up they will be more apt to continue coming back, opening my ads and wanting more.  Each time we do this however we must monitor the data gained. Constantly cleaning, adjusting and tailoring our correspondence to our audience.
            Analyzing the data we receive through interacting with our customers we can over time uniquely adjust our message to meet the changing needs.  Collecting the data, cleaning the database, emailing the clientele, interacting with their needs and utilizing the email service provider to establish a clear and concise message is the sure-fire approach to a successful email campaign.  Keep the customers needs first.  Look and adjust your ads to minimize deletions and SPAM association.  Continue to use headings and paragraph that break up the text, engage the customers and market your product!
            Finally, after a well defined and executed email strategy we may find ourselves marketable and profitable in the days to come.  Stick to your game plan and stay on target. Email strategies have been here a while, hey have proved themselves worthwhile and are here to stay a bit longer.  The time to get your branding out there to your customer base is now.  Best of luck!
Dodson, I. (2016). The Art of Digital Marketing. Wiley.

Wednesday, October 2, 2019

Career Assessments


   Career Assessments are designed to examine your interest, work values, and work skills. It is usually designed by psychologists and supplies you with a plethora of  information pertaining to occupations which match your outlook on careers, and their related majors. This assessment is given by asking a series of multiple-choice questions about the individual taking the assessment. There is no pass or fail method. The parameters to which the assessment identifies the persons career path, is associated with the answers given.  It typically outlines what the individual likes, doesn’t like, what’s important to the person, and the individual’s strengths and weaknesses.Career decision making requires gathering information about one's preferences and abilities and the various occupational alternatives and training tracks, as well as the subsequent processing of this information.”(Gati, I., & Levin, N. (2014).  All of this is a part in identifying the potential assets a person has to offer a field of business, and the identification of the best possible career choices for the individual.
   Based upon the assessment I took on the O* Net sight, there were career choices matched to me by what my interests were. Some of those fields were: Credit Counselor, Human Resource Manager, Probation officer & Correction Treatment Specialist, General Operations Manager, and Social & Community Service Managers, to name a few. I found it interesting as some of the above positions, as well as some I did not mention, have not caught my attention in the past, as an interest. I have been told on so many occasions that due to my stern actions and having a zero tolerance for certain types of behaviors that I would fit best in a Corrections or, as a probation officer. To see it as one of the jobs on the assessment was interesting.
   To get a better understanding of what the assessment entailed I looked into the General Operations Manager, field. On the O*Net site, this assessment detailed the job with a description of what the job was about, a career video explaining the day to day operations of this job, an outlook into the future of this job, projected employment for 10 years, typical wages earned in this field, the education/experience needed to get started into the career, any certificates/licenses needed, the skills, knowledge, activities, and abilities all required for a position as a General Operations Manager. A career assessment is a good way to assess the strengths of the individuals according to the needs of the job. As mentioned in (), Career Needs Assessments are also of assistance in developing the longer-term goals, objectives and theoretical framework for aligning the office with the goals, mission, and vision of the institution. (Haviland and Gohn, 1983).
Reference(s):
Gati, I., & Levin, N. (2014). Counseling for career decision-making difficulties: Measures and methods. The Career Development Quarterly, 62(2), 98-113.  
Haviland, M.G., & Gohn, L.A. (1983). Career Planning Needs of College Students. NASPA Journal, 20(4), 28–33.

Tuesday, October 1, 2019

Human Resource Managers Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities


Human Resource Managers: Human Resource Managers need 5 important skills, abilities and certain knowledge:
Skills                                                                                        Abilities
Management of Personnel Resources                                      Oral Comprehension        
Active Listening                                                                       Written Comprehension
Speaking                                                                                   Oral Expression
Social Perceptiveness                                                                Written Expression  
Reading Comprehension                                                            Speech Recognition
And the most important knowledge one can have in this area is Personnel and Human Resources or the knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems ("Human Resources Managers: Job Requirements," n.d.).
Food Service Manager
Skills                                                                                       Abilities
Service Orientation                                                                Oral Comprehension
Coordination                                                                          Oral Expression
Speaking                                                                                 Problem Sensitivity
Critical Thinking                                                                     Written Comprehension
Monitoring                                                                              Speech Clarity
And for knowledge    
Customer and Personal Service - Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction ("Food Service Managers: Job Requirements," n.d.).
Business Teachers, Postsecondary
Skills                                                                                        Abilities
Speaking                                                                                   Oral Expression
Reading Comprehension                                                           Written Comprehension
Instructing                                                                                  Speech Clarity
Active Listening                                                                          Oral Comprehension
Writing                                                                                        Written Expression
The knowledge that is most important in this field is
 Education and Training -  Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects ("Business Teachers, Postsecondary: Job Requirements," n.d.).
English Language - Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar ("Business Teachers, Postsecondary: Job Requirements," n.d.).
These professions do overlap in terms of the skills and abilities as well as the knowledge for the job requirements. I feel that I am qualified in the fields of Human Resource and Food Service Manager, but not college professor. While I have certain skills that make me qualified, such as I can speak clearly, I can read, write, speak and understand English there are certain other requirements that make me unqualified for the job(s). I have an intense fear of speaking in front of large groups, and some jobs require it. I don’t like crowds at all.
References
Business Teachers, Postsecondary: Job Requirements. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.myplan.com/careers/business-teachers-postsecondary/requirements-25-1011.00.html
Food Service Managers: Job Requirements. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.myplan.com/careers/food-service-managers/requirements-11-9051.00.html

Monday, September 30, 2019

Analytics, Strategy and Planning


Analytics is defined as the process of measuring, collecting, analyzing, and reporting the behavior of visitors on a website, in order to understand and optimize web usage (Dodson, 2016).  This is taking data linked to the consumers that visit a business website and analyzing the data to determine their online behavior.  There are three steps to cover when completing the process of Analytics which are 1) Goals, 2) Setup and 3) Monitoring (Dodson, 2016).  The Analytic goals set will be used by a company to determine the overall success or failure of a website by reviewing the consumers that visit the website, what they are viewing, and how long they are using the website.  The setup is meant to help determine how the measurements and tools should be organized within the Analytic setup.  The monitoring is closing reviewing the activity linked to the website and how performance is affecting the website (Dodson, 2016)
            As to strategy and planning which is defined as the process of integrating digital marketing activities with a plan, buying for it, and executing a successful digital marketing campaign (Dodson, 2016) we cover the four different stages of this topic.  The first stage is Approach which discusses the overall plan or driving force of a digital campaign (Dodson, 2016).  The second stage is Audience which identify the target audience for the campaign (Dodson,2016).  Stage three is Activities which plans out the specific objectives of a campaign (Dodson, 2016).  The fourth and final stage of strategy and planning is Analysis.  This stage covers the tools need to analyze a campaign to identify any adjustments that need to be made (Dodson, 2016).
                                                            Reference
Dodson, I. (2016). The Art of Digital Marketing: The Definitive Guide to Creating Strategic, Targeted, and Measurable Online Campaigns, 1st Edition.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Military Career Decision-Making Professional Competency

 INFORMATION PLANNING, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL


In this paper, I plan on explaining what professional competencies I have versus what are needed to become military officer in relation to information planning, management, and control. I will do this using the similarities between the military and civilian business and the skills I have acquired that will be useful as a military officer. I will also focus a lot on the differences between information planning, management, and control in the military and in a business.

Management deals with the conceptual issues of the organization, such as planning, budgeting, and organizing. The planning part involves setting and meeting goals and targets. Command guides the organization with well thought-out visions that make it effective. Control provides structure to the organization in order to make it more efficient (Department of the Army, 1987).
Command is the conveying of a vision to the organization in order to achieve a goal. It does this by formulating a well-thought out vision and then clearly communicating it. Command emphasizes success and reward. Control is the process used to establish and provide structure in order to deal with uncertainties. Since visions normally produce change, this can produce tension and these uncertainties that causes tensions must be dealt with by leadership so they do not hinder the organization. Management's primary focus is on the conceptual side of the business, such as planning, organizing, and budgeting. It does the leg work to make visions reality. Management is about ensuring that the organization's resources are allocated wisely. Management helps to acquire, integrate, and allocate resources in order to accomplish goals and task. This is normally a continuous process. Command communicates the vision or goal to the best people who can implement it. Throughout the process, it adjusts to new knowledge and refines the vision. Leadership helps to guide and motivate people to do their best through the process, and control seeks opportunities to reduce risks, which in turn makes the process more efficient. All these processes work together to make organizations a success when done properly (Clark, 2015).
In my military career, I need to be both a leader and a manager. Leadership is the ability to inspire and influence others to do something and management is the administrative tools, supervision, and other work I use to get there. For example, inspiring my workers to get promoted is leadership, but giving them fair evaluations, ensuring they are taking on the right duties, and assigning challenging jobs they need and giving them time to study is management (Leadership vs Management, 2011).
Human resource management requires individuals to be highly organized, ethical, and skilled at negotiation, conflict resolution and communication. These are all skills that I have acquired throughout my degree program. A human resource management career requires the right combination of education and skills, along with personal attributes such as responsibility, patience, fairness, empathy and firmness. Some of these skills can be taught, and others one either has or dose not. I feel that I have these attributes although I can struggle with patience from time to time, but it is something I continue to work on. Human resource managers deal with employees during potentially stressful situations and must be able to perform their duties in a respectful and diplomatic manner. Human resources specialists in the U.S. military share many of the same duties and daily tasks as their civilian counterparts. For example, in the U.S. Air Force, personnel specialists assist and advise airmen on developing their careers through training programs, and provide information on job specialties and promotions. Additional tasks can include maintaining files and records, scheduling and processing personnel for various actions, and advising personnel and dependents on military training and benefits. Some other human resource careers in the military include becoming one of the following. Personnel Manager whose responsibilities include directing personnel to jobs and training assignments, and planning recruiting activities. Human Resources Management Specialist whose main responsibilities include managing affirmative action plans and evaluation procedures, and designing strategies to improve HR management. Human Resources Specialist support the overall welfare of enlisted personnel, and help leadership keep service members healthy and ready for combat. Since these are all skills that I have been improving upon in my Human Service Degree Program, I feel that I have many options when transitioning to an officer in the military (Burns, n.d.).
Although there are many similarities between the military’s strategies for planning, command, and control, there are many differences as well. When looking at Command and control, the military has a vertical hierarchical structure. The rules of conduct are much more exact and the roles are defined with rank and status that play a big part in the hierarchy and how information is passed. This also includes the defined or assigned occupational career fields that one is trained specifically for when joining the military. The military has consistency across the units and organizations that makes understanding positions and roles quite clear no matter where one is stationed. In terms of promotions and long term careers, the military has a clearly defined process for career progression. Additionally, veterans share a bond in beliefs, traditions, values, and the importance of rank and structure. This can carry on into their civilian life after getting out of the military (Burns, n.d.).
In a corporate non-military atmosphere, there is more of a collaborative model that most organizations tend to use. Organizations are moving closer to a matrix structure to make team work more effective. The rules of conduct are more implied or understood based on the organization’s culture and a person’s roles and status are more ambiguous or flexible depending on the situation. There is variation across teams and divisions with roles and positions having more flexibility. When it comes to career progression, there is a less defined path and more opportunity for lateral assignments. The corporate culture imposes corporate values on the organization and this affects the behaviors of the employees within the organization (Burns, n.d.).
Typically, a military member rises to the top, based on a career ladder (from an E-1 to E-9 within a 20-year career; or junior officer to senior officer). Most of the time in the same career field such as intelligence, logistics, aviation, infantry, medical, administration, and such. The Army, Navy, and Marine Corps do provide opportunities for enlisted soldiers to become Warrant Officers once they are a certain rank through a board and selection process. Other paths taken by enlisted include going to school while enlisted or leaving the military to attain a college degree, and rejoin as an officer (Burns, n.d.).
On the non-military or civilian side, the opportunities are less defined. This is true both inside a company, and when reaching for the top ladder-rung by changing companies. A good example of this is a prior military member who, in a nine-year period left the military as an E-5 enlisted soldier in the Army. He applied for and received a position as a GS-13 in the federal government in a supervisory position. From there he left the federal government and joined a Department of Defense contractor as a Director. He left the DoD contractor for another DoD contractor, where he set up the contract parameters, and was hired as an executive Vice President. He has the opportunity still to move around if desired and apply for more senior-level federal positions. This gives an opportunity to relocate and continue to move up the corporate ladder. Furthermore, within a company, employees can jump from low-level to management, simply based on merit or networking. Many companies have career field codes, but typically, they are much more flexible in allowing employees to transfer into new positions, provide the appropriate training, and expect success. This shows that the opportunities on the corporate side are boundless (Burns, n.d.).  
One of the most common sets of activities in the management is planning. Very simply stated, planning is setting the direction for some system and then guiding the system to follow the direction. There are many kinds of planning in organizations. Common to these many kinds of planning are various phases of planning and guidelines for carrying them out as effectively as possible. Whether the system is an organization, department, business, project, etc., the basic planning process typically includes similar nature of activities carried out in similar sequence. The complexity of the various phases depends on the scope of the system, however, the nature of the activities and their general sequence remains the same. The typical phases that will be summarized on planning used in the corporate world may vary depending on the planning process an organization uses.
·    Reference Overall Purpose, Mission, or Desired Result from System
During planning, planners have in mind some overall purpose or result that the plan is to achieve. For example, during strategic planning, it's critical to reference the mission, or overall purpose, of the organization.
·    Take Stock Outside and Inside the System
An example is that during strategic planning, it's important to conduct an environmental scan. This scan usually involves considering various driving forces, or major influences, that might affect the organization.
·    Analyze the Situation
For example, during strategic planning, planners often conduct a "SWOT analysis". During this analysis, planners also can use a variety of assessments, or methods to measure the health of systems.
·    Establish Goals
Based on the analysis and alignment to the overall mission of the system, planners establish a set of goals that build on strengths to take advantage of opportunities, while building up weaknesses and warding off threats.
·    Establish Strategies to Reach Goals
The particular strategies to reach the goals chosen depend on matters of affordability, practicality and efficiency.
·    Establish Objectives Along the Way to Achieving Goals
Objectives are selected to be timely and indicative of progress toward goals.
·    Associate Responsibilities and Time Lines With Each Objective
Responsibilities are assigned, including for implementation of the plan, and for achieving various goals and objectives and deadlines are set for meeting each responsibility.
·    Write and Communicate a Plan Document
The above information is organized and written in a document which is distributed around the system.
·    Acknowledge Completion and Celebrate Success
If this step is ignored it can eventually undermine the success of many of your future planning efforts. The purpose of a plan is to address a current problem or pursue a development goal. Skipping this step can cultivate apathy and skepticism or even cynicism in an organization.
In the military, the planning process looks quite different. The military decision-making process has seven steps. Each step of the process begins with certain input that builds upon the previous steps. Each step, in turn, has its own output that drives subsequent steps. Errors committed early in the process will impact on later steps. Estimates go on continuously to provide important inputs for the military decision making process. The commander and each staff section do estimates. Estimates are revised when important new information is received or when the situation changes significantly. They are conducted not only to support the planning process but also during mission execution.
·      Step 1: Receipt of Mission.
Input: Mission received by higher headquarters or deduced by the commander or staff.
Output: Commander’s initial guidance; Warning order issued
·       Step 2: Mission Analysis.
Input: Higher HQ deliver a detailed order and plan; Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB); Specific staff make estimates for mission; List all facts & assumptions for estimates.
Output: Initial IPB products such as map overlays, weather reports and other intel information; Restated mission with greater detail; Commander’s intent explaining their vision; Commanders’ guidance (more detailed); Second warning order in greater detail to give subordinate units more guidance for planning process; Staff estimates continue; Preliminary movement (staging of troops and equipment).
·      Step 3: Course of Action Development.
Input: Restated mission; Commander’s guidance; Commander’s intent, Staff estimates & products; Enemy course of action (what the enemy is most likely to do based on intel).
Output: Course of action statements and sketches (step by step plan and visuals).
·      Step 4: Course of Action Analysis
Input: Enemy course of action; Course of action statements and sketches
Output: War-game results (projected results of the proposed courses of action and a recommended course of action for the commander); Task Organization (assigning platoons and companies); Mission communicated to subordinate units; Commander’s Critical Information Requirements (What do we want to know about the enemy? What do we want to know about ourselves? What information do we need to keep from the enemy?)
·      Step 5: Course of Action Comparison.
Input: War-game results; Establish criteria (matrix to rank criteria based on importance)
Output: Decision matrix (final product with recommend course of action based on weighted criteria for commander’s approval).
·      Step 6: Course of Action Approval.
Input: Decision matrix
Output: Approved course of action; Refined commander’s intent; Specified type of rehearsal (practice evolution as specified by commander); High pay-off target list (What needs to be accomplished in what order to be successful in mission).
·      Step 7: Orders Production.
Input: Approved course of action
Output: Orders (orders are generated and distributed to all involved
Figure 5-1 below shows the continuous flow of the commander’s and staff estimated throughout the working process (The military decision making process, n.d.).

  It is clear that although there are similarities within the management, planning, and control processes for military and civilian organizations, the differences are abundant. There are many skills that can be learned and acquired on the civilian side that can be helpful in the military. These attributes can be built upon in the military as they retrain personnel to use information planning, management, and control to fit a military standard so that all personnel will have the same skills to be as efficient as possible.

References
Burns, D. (n.d.). Understanding how military and civilian cultures differ. Job Hunt. Retrieved from http://www.job-hunt.org/veterans-job-search/military-vs-civilian-cultures.shtml
Clark, D. (2015) The four pillars: leadership, management, command, & control. Big Dog, Little Dog. Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/LMCC.html
Department of the Army (1987). Leadership and Command at Senior Levels. FM 22-103. Washington, DC: GPO.
How to do planning. (n.d.) Free Management Library. Retrieved from http://managementhelp.org/planning/index.htm
Leadership vs. management. (2011). Military Leader. Retrieved from https://militaryleader.wordpress.com/
The military decision making process. (n.d.). Army Field Manual 101-5. Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/fm101-5_mdmp.pdf


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