Tuesday, September 17, 2019


Unethical Practices at Barclays Bank

         In this case study we have the United States of Justice conducting a criminal investigation into abuse of the LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate) interest rate regulated by the British Banker’s Administration. And resulting on a fine of more than $440 million by Unites States and English financial regulatory agencies for manipulating the LIBOR to its advantages, causing world-wide effects to business and individuals. 

Ethical Development Level
In the case of Barclays Bank and the manipulation of the LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate). It can easily be determined that the executives of this organization correspond to the Preconventional morality level. “Preconventional morality can be define as the most basic level, is childlike. It is calculating, self-centered, and even selfish, based on what will be immediately punished or rewarded” (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel, 2014, p.34). The manipulation of the LIBOR interest rates by proposing artificially low bank-to-bank rates to make themselves more stable than they actually were showed that they did not care about anyone else but rewarding themselves.

Corporate Social Responsibility
 “Corporate Social Responsibility: Is the business’s concern for society’s welfare. This concern is demonstrated by managers who consider the best interest of the company and the society within which it operates” (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel, 2014, p.37). The manipulation of the LIBOR rate Barclays Bank not only affected London banks and business executives, but also small business and individuals like students who have students’ loans, and homeowners, whom interest rates depend on the LIBOR rate since it is use all around the world as an interest rate and a financial instrument benchmark. If Barclay’s bank executives had had any kind of Corporate Social Responsibility they had never manipulated the rate to their best interest without thinking on the bad consequences for the rest of the society.   

Corporate Social Responsibility Response Actions
To take corporate Social Responsibility of their actions after the scandal broke up Barclays bank should of ask a public general apology and offered to compensated the most affected victims of their unethical practices, and compromise to do a clean up of all their unethical executives and make them responsible for their actions. Show society that people have to be responsible and accountable for their actions regardless of the position they held within the organization.

Postconventional Morality
But in the other hand if the executives at Barclays Bank would of stopped and think for a moment if  “Even though manipulating the LIBOR will increase company profits, is it the right thing to do in the long run?” they would of being in the Postconventional morality level. This is the last level of morality that represents the morality of and adult. “At this level, people are less concerned about how others might see them and more concerned about how they see and judge themselves over the long run”(Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel, 2014, p.34). Being at this level show that the organization and the people in it have an excellent ethical and moral integrity.

Ethics and Social Responsibility in Marketing
“Ethics is the moral principle that generally governs the conduct of an individual or a group” (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel, 2014, p.32). Ethics are the base of a successful long lasting relationship between the organization and their customers since the businesspersons have the obligation to be honest with their customers, they are also responsible for preserving their customers environment and protecting their rights. By doing so they have insured a good long relationship with them and these actions would automatically put them on the philanthropic responsibilities level of the pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility since they would not only be profitable, obey the law, be ethical, but a good corporate citizen, contributing to the community and improving the quality of life.   


Lamb, C. W., Hair, J. F., & McDaniel,

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Busienss to Business (B2B) Applications

B2B applications that leverage the Internet are not visible to the public in the same way that Web sites for B2C applications are. Prior to the Internet, many large companies had in proprietary EDI systems for electronic transmission of standard documents that used private networks. By the early 1990s there was a large installed base of these systems, and because these proprietary systems were also highly reliable and efficient, it took almost a decade for many large businesses to rely on the Internet as a secure communications channel. However, for many smaller businesses, the custom EDI systems of the past had not been economically feasible, and for these firms the Internet created entirely new B2B opportunities. By 2003, the dollar volume of B2B e-business had grown to about $1.3 trillion (from about $250 billion three years earlier) and to $3.6 trillion by 2008.

The growing usage of mobile devices for wireless cellular communications has fueled the development of e-business applications designed for these mobile devices, sometimes referred to as m-commerce. One of the new business opportunities here is to provide customized content to the user based on the actual geographic location of the handheld device as well as demographic data.


Pollard, C., Turban, E., Wood, G. (2018). Information technology for management: On-demand strategies for performance, growth, and sustainability (11th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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